Technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics
1.同意技术对社会习惯和和道德规范的影响，但反对其决定作用的说法。 2.科学技术对社会习惯的影响，科技进步影响各个方面，社会习惯和道德规范也受到影 响。 影响社会习惯例子：Postcard改用email，Mobile phone short message in holidays. 生动丰富，快捷，便宜。 影响道德规范例子:human clone, internet 对传统的道德规范形成冲击，其约束力减弱,网络为人们说谎提供了方便 ,在网上没有人知道和你说话的是条狗。 3.但技术并不是决定作用。 前面的同样的技术对不同地方的道德产生了同样的挑战，但并没有形成同样的社会习惯 和道德规范。 技术并不能一定影响。还有其他更重要的影响因素。如文化，历史，地理，气候，很难说哪个使决定性的，但技术不是决定性的。 4.In sum。
The speaker asserted that technologies determine the social customs and ethics rather than only influence them. I concede that the influence of technologies is obvious. However it is only one factor among many others such as culture, history and climate and so forth, it is rarely a straightforward issue to simply draw the conclusion that it is technology that plays the decisive role.
Admittedly, the influence of technologies on social customs is so obvious that you need look no father than the things at hand. We no longer send postcard or letters to our friends and relative in holidays as our parents used to do. The email serves as a nice substitute for the letter. Furthermore, it is faster, more convenient, cheaper and provide more vivid content than the traditional letter. Besides email, the mobile phone short message also present a good way to send regards to friends, and it is even more convenient than email. Actually, the most recent twenties years has seen a great development in technology which influence nearly all the aspects of our life. Apart from the social customs, the traditional ethics is challenged by it. The most typical example immediately coming to mind is human clone which has sparked a hot debate around the world since the very first day when the technology of clone was declared. And another one is the ethics of real world is failed to work well in the virtual world which derived from the internet thanks to the great development of information technology. People find it is easer to lie in the digital world where all the members using anonymous name There are even a popular saying: “On the internet no one know if he is talking with a dog.” In short, the development of technology forced us to mend and perfect our social customs and ethics.
However, I don’t agree with the assertion that technology determines the social customs and ethics simply because of its influence. The same technology exert the same effect upon the different social customs and ethics, as in the example of human clone and internet on traditional ethics referred before, which the problems trouble nearly all the nations with different social customs and ethics, but we cannot easily say that the same technology result in the same social customs and ethics, which is obviously contradict with the facts that different country have different social customs though they are using the same technology.
Then we consider the influence of other factors. Fist, since the formation of a county’s social customs and ethics is a long process, closely related to the economy development and social development, thus the contribution of history should not be ignored. We can always find the origin of the customs from the nation’s history. Chinese eating rice dumpling on May 5th of lunar calendar is to memorize a great poet named Quyuan who lived nearly two thousands years ago. Second, the cultures of different nations render them different social customs. The customs of many Asian countries which customs are greatly influenced by the traditional Chinese culture and make them far different from the one of European countries which customs are influenced by the Western culture. Third, the effect of climate should also be considered. The residents of cold area and the ones who living in the hot area are highly likely to have the different customs in very detail respects though they living in one country and share the same history. Besides these factors, the religion, geography and other factors can always influence one nation’s social customs and ethics greatly, they are more significant than technology in some circumstance.
In sum, technology’s influence on social customs and ethics should never be ignored, especially now when the technology is playing a pivotal role in every field of our life, but it can not determine the customs and ethics.